W. N. SAWAYA1, F. Al-Awadi, A. Hussain, and S. Al-Zenki4. (1) Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, American Univ. of Beirut, Beirut, 11-0236, Lebanon, (2) Biotechnology Department, Kuwiat Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait, 13109, Kuwait
Concern of possible negative health impacts for previously unmonitored and progressive increase in consumption of sweets and other colored foods by vulnerable school-aged children during the last decade in the State of Kuwait, and lack of scientific data on intake levels of these synthetic colors has prompted the initiation of this study.
The objective of this study was to assess intake of food colorants by sample groups of 5-14 year-old children, and compare results to FAO/WHO Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).
A 24-hour dietary recall method to calculate daily intake of food colorants by 5-14 year-old children, was used twice (2001-2002) on 3934 male (M) and female (F) Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti students from 81 schools (kindergarten, elementary and intermediate). Determination of colorants in foods consumed (450 items) was performed by a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector per FDA modified method (Ricotta and Meyer, 1984).
Results indicated that out of 9 permitted colors, two exceeded their ADIs, namely, E110 (7-9 yrs., M & F), 5.8 mg/kg body weight (ADI 0-2.5) and E122 (6-8 yrs., M & F) 6.2 mg/kg body weight (ADI 0-4.0). Higher consumption of fruit drinks, and to a lesser extent, candies followed by jellies, accounted for most red E122 and yellow E110 colors. Moreover, some non-permitted colors, e.g., acid orange 10, were identified in some samples. Several permitted colors (E102/E110/E122/E127/ E129/E133) not stated on labels were also detected.
Data obtained warrant further investigation on chronic health effects and is important for regulatory authorities to control colored food imports from developing countries, in particular, where little if any control exists as well as establishing better guidelines for local manufacturers to protect children and public health.
Session 49I, Toxicology & Safety Evaluation: General