Comparison of volatile flavor components between ripe and unripe Calamondin (X Citrofortunella mitis J. Ingram and H. E. Moore)
A. D. PRUDENTE, JR., Z. Xu, and J. M. King. Dept. of Food Science, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, 111 Food Science Bldg., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200
Calamondin is one of the most useful and widely grown citrus plants in the Philippines. It is used primarily for its juice and is considered substitute for lemon and lime. It is valued for making acid beverages, frozen and powdered concentrates, candies, and wine. It is rich in phosphorous, calcium, iron, and vitamin C. Peel oil is used in making perfumes, soap, deodorizing agents, flavoring, petrochemicals, and pharmaceutical products. Several studies have been reported on chemical and nutritional changes during processing and storage of juice. However, studies on the changes in volatile flavors during the ripening period are limited.
This study provided qualitative data on the volatile flavor components and the changes that occurred during the ripening process of calamondin. This provided additional information to better understand the flavor of this citrus fruit.
Each fruit was peeled by hand and squeezed manually to extract the juice. Ten-mL of juice was transferred into a 250-mL flask. Volatile compounds in headspace were extracted in a polydimethylsiloxane coated SPME sampler for 15 min at 80°C prior to injection. Volatile components were determined by GC-MS. Evaluation of the peaks was made by comparison with NIST mass spectra library.
Results showed that both juices contained 30 volatile compounds. Eighteen of these compounds were previously reported to be present in juice and/or peel oil. New components were tentatively identified as b-terpineol, carveol-acetate, geraniol, geranyl-butanoate, a-gurjunene, g- and d-cadinene, caryophyllene, b-selinene, patchoulene, 6-nonenal, and thujopsen. Decyl-acetate, d-elemene, geraniol, geranyl-butyrate, a-gurjunene, g-cadinene, b-selinene, valencene, perillaldehyde, and patchoulene were higher in ripe than unripe calamondin.
This study provides information on possible compounds that might be responsible for differences in flavor of ripe and unripe calamondin. This result will aid in determining what level of ripeness is suitable for a particular food process.
Session 45C, Food Chemistry: Flavor and aroma chemistry